used lớn refer to lớn a situation in which decisions are made by a few people in authority rather than by the people who are affected by the decisions:

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starting from the highest levels or from the most general ideas of an organization, system, plan, etc.:
A complete specification of the mã sản phẩm will require more investigation of the role of top-down inhibition ahy vọng representations.
Forthcoming procedures for the analysis of electroacoustic music should derive sầu from the synthesis of top-down và bottom-up views derived from different competences.
Thus, the refinement of abstract mã sản phẩm into lớn a detailed one is, in their interpretation, a feature of top-down thiết kế.
This approach relieves the problems existing in a bottom-up approach and those in a top-down approach.
Repeated spatial or temporal coincidences between top-down expectation signals and bottom-up input signals reinforce the relative sầu weights of signal exchanges in a given neural circuit.
The electoral majority the government rests on is top-down, not bottom-up, and thus is not one created by the voters" expressed preferences.
The column was subjected to lớn several cycles of top-down freezing & thawing to lớn simulate an active layer.
It is an trương mục of the dangers of blueprint, top-down development and its focus on scientific control.
All the rich associations of "top-down" control were built into the discourse & nowhere questioned.
Increasing the information nội dung of đầu vào representations minimizes the potential necessity for top-down processes.
Along with top-down tư vấn & reasonable expectations, here are further components in initial planning.

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Produce by these small farmers was marketed either by " top-down-created " co-operatives or state owned crop authorities.
The richness of these bottom-up sources of redundancy leaves little room for any top-down sources to lớn improve the phonological yield.
These examples are from corpora & from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples vì not represent the opinion of the editors or of University Press or its licensors.




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